Strengthening capacity in MSM, transgender and hijra communities to improve HIV prevention impact. Pehchan programme strengthened and built the capacity of 200 community-based organisations (CBOs) to provide effective, inclusive and sustainable HIV prevention programming in 17 states in India for more than 450,000 men who have sex with men (MSM), transgenders and hijras. Pehchan was supported by The Global Fund focusing on the HIV response for vulnerable and underserved sexual minorities. Along with Alliance India, the Pehchan consortium included the Humsafar Trust, Pehchan North Region Office, SAATHII, Sangama, Alliance India Andhra Pradesh, and SIAAP. The programme was a rare example of Community Systems Strengthening programme working at a national scale. It provided organisational development, technical and capacity building support to new and existing CBOs working with MSM, transgender and hijra communities. Using a rights-based approach, the programme developed CBOs to serve as implementing partners with the National AIDS Control Programme’s Targeted Interventions (TIs) that provide HIV prevention services to high-risk groups. By helping build strong CBOs, Pehchan addressed capacity gaps that often prevent them from receiving government funding. Pehchan also enhanced the scope of services to reflect the needs of the community. The programme leveraged and complemented the government’s HIV prevention strategy for MSM, transgender and hijra by providing services beyond basic HIV prevention that support an enabling environment that encourages healthy behaviours. Pehchan also fostered community-friendly services in the broader health system and engages in advocacy to improve the lives and wellbeing of MTH populations in India.